Preparations for College Admissions – Sophomore Year of HS

I. Your College Application

 The first thing to do is obtain applications from at least three colleges you would like to attend. While costs are important in choosing a college, keep in mind that most colleges have scholarships and other kinds of financial aid available so few students pay the published rates. If you have good grades and test scores, you should be able to get help with tuition and other costs.

For this reason, some of you may find it is more economical to attend a private school versus a public school. They often have large endowments and greater opportunities for finical aid. So if you have a 3.5 GPA or higher and good test scores, get an application from a private school. Don’t be afraid to include an ivy league school like Yale, Princeton or any other well known private school with highly ranked programs in the major you want to pursue. There have been many Oklahoma high school students with good grades who have been admitted to prestigious private colleges and universities and received the financial aide they needed that allowed them to attend.

When you get your applications you will see that most colleges require an application fee. But this fee can be waived for eligible students. Colleges and universities normally give fee waivers if someone participates in the national school lunch program, the family is receiving public assistance or the applicant received a fee waiver for the SAT or ACT.

There are three things you will need to prepare to go with the application.


Colleges will require you to write an essay. Your essay is meant to show the admissions officer how well you can write and that you can support ideas with logical arguments. Admission officers also look to the essay to show something about your personality. Common application essay questions are called prompts. You can find these questions and links to a list of sample essays by successful applicants in the article titled “Start to Build a Successful Career in HS” on the home page.

Here are five common essay questions included in that article:

  1. Describe a background, identity, interest, or talent that you believe is meaningful and that your application would be incomplete without it
  2. The lessons we take from the obstacles we encounter can be fundamental to later success. Recount a time when you faced a challenge, setback, or failure. How did it affect you and what did you learn from the experience?
  3. Reflect on a time when you questioned or challenged a belief or idea. What prompted your thinking? What was the outcome?
  4. Describe a problem you’ve solved or a problem you’d like to solve. It can be an intellectual challenge, a research query, an ethical dilemma or anything that is of personal importance, no matter the scale. Explain its significance to you and what steps you tool or could be taken to identify a solution.
  5. Discuss and accomplishment, event, or realization that sparked a period of personal growth and a new understanding of yourself or others.

Read the question you are given several times. Then, before you start writing, make notes about yourself and your strengths that you will use to answer the essay question. Use these notes to create an outline to organize your essay. It is also important in writing an essay to give a real example. So as part of this outline, decide where you want your examples to appear.

When you write your essay you will need to use the Modern Language Association format. This MLA format requires that your essay has things like a one-inch margin on the top, bottom, left, and right and shows you where your name and a page number should appear. We have examples in the same YPNG article “Start in HS to Build a Successful Career” that will show you what a completed essay looks like using this format.

Your essay should be organized to include a one-paragraph introduction, several paragraphs explaining your main ideas with examples and a one-paragraph conclusion that summarizes your essay.

Write a first draft and don’t worry about mistakes. You are just trying to get your initial thoughts down on paper. Then do a second draft to refine your writing. You can show this second draft to people you know and to teachers and counselors. But make sure if you make any of the changes other people suggest, those changes are in your own words. You never want there to be any doubt on the part of the admissions officer reading your essay that you wrote it.

 Letters of Recommendation

The application will require you to submit at least one letter of recommendation from a teacher or counselor. We would like you to get a second recommendation from another teacher or counselor or alumni of the school so you have at least two.

Consider the people you are going to ask for recommendations carefully. These letters are normally sent directly to the admissions officer and you won’t get to see them. So make sure the people you ask are excited about writing a recommendation for you. You can help them prepare to write your recommendation by giving them a copy of your resume and your essay that will go with your application. You can also give them anything else you think is important they should know about you. Just remember that in this situation you are the one giving your teacher or another adult homework. Give them as much information as you can and plenty of time before the deadline so they can write a great letter for you.

High School Resume

Besides an essay, you will be required to submit a high school resume with your application. These resumes give college admission officers a snapshot of your accomplishments during high school including a summary of your grades and test scores, extracurricular activities, hobbies and work history. A resume can also be a tremendous asset when you meet with an interviewer, ask for recommendations, or apply for scholarships. We have links to templates the will help you gather information and compose your college admission resume along with links to examples of high school resumes in the same article “Start in High School to Build a Successful Career” on the home page.


II. How to Apply for Scholarships

The first thing to do is fill out a Federal Student Aid Application (FAFSA) to be eligible for federal need-based aid and most state aid. This application is also used by many private scholarship programs not just those sponsored by the federal and state governments.

Some colleges also require what is called a CSS Financial Aid Profile that is administered by the College Board and can be filled out online. Fees for the CSS can be waived if you received a fee waiver for the SAT or ACT.

Next research the scholarships that may be available to you. Here are some places to start:

  • The financial officers at the colleges you want to attend will have lists of scholarships.
  • Your high school career counselor will usually have lists of scholarships and grants and will know of local companies and service organizations that offer scholarships to local students.
  • You may qualify for Federal TRIO Programs (TRIO). These are Federal outreach and student services programs designed to identify and provide services for individuals from disadvantaged backgrounds. TRIO includes eight programs targeted to assist low-income individuals, first-generation college students, and individuals with disabilities to help them with their academic career.
  • Oklahoma has state grants based on financial need like the Oklahoma Tuition Aid Grant and the Oklahoma Tuition Equalization Grant. You apply using the Federal Student Aid Application (FAFSA).
  • There are a number of free scholarship search engines on the Internet like “Scholarship Search” that will provide you a list of other kinds of grants given by private businesses. These companies most often employ engineers, architects and people pursuing other STEM careers. These are also service organizations like The American Association of University Women who have local chapters in Tulsa and OKC and the professional fraternity for black men, Sigma Pi Phi, that gives college scholarships to black male students. These are just two examples. But you will find many more searching the web.
  • Most private colleges that have large endowments offer scholarships to students attending their school. They want both economic and racial diversity in their student bodies. If you have good grades and test scores, talk to admissions officers at some of the top schools. As two examples, Princeton and Yale both have active recruitment programs to promote diversity in their student bodies and generous scholarship and financial aid packages for those they accept. There have been recruiters from these schools who have come to Tulsa to recruit at the Tulsa Chamber’s Career Event put on every summer in August and have attended other college recruitment programs in the state. Attending one of these will give you a chance to talk directly to these schools’ admissions officers. Take the resume you have prepared with you and see if they have an interest in recruiting you.
  • Another way to get a free college education is to qualify for one of the military academies. These schools offer an opportunity to get an engineering degree at no cost in exchange for a seven-year military commitment. We have a West Point graduate who is a YPNG mentor, Chris Chavez, in our mentor library. Her article will let you learn about how she was able to attend college by going to a military academy and how she build a successful engineering career after completing her military commitment.

Don’t miss filing deadlines for scholarships. They don’t always match the deadlines for admissions applications. Some scholarships have deadlines early in the fall of your senior year. Mark the due dates on your calendar and work your way backward to figure out how much time you’ll have to get each piece of the scholarship application finished.

Read the applications carefully and then gather the items you need. Most scholarship applications ask for:

  • High school transcript.
  • Standardized test scores – either ACT or SAT.
  • Your parents Financial Information including Tax Returns
  • Proof of eligibility if the scholarship is awarded to students from a certain ethnic group.

Keep copies of everything you send the admissions officer so that it will be easy for you to respond to their questions.

Most of these applications are submitted over the Internet. But if you have to submit a scholarship application by mail, track your package so you know it arrived. Use that date when you do your follow up with the financial aid or scholarship officer.


III. Other Things You Should Know

 Student Services

Contact the office that provides support to students at the colleges where you are submitting applications. These offices are usually called Student Affairs, Student Support, or Student Services. They are the department at the college designed to enhance student growth and development both in and out of the classroom and help students navigate through college successfully. Some of the help you can receive through this office include disability services, personal and academic counseling, peer mentoring, peer tutoring and suggestions for clubs that fit your interests. Remember it is important to get involved. Student activities add fun, friendship and give you opportunities that will help you demonstrate leadership qualities to prospective employers after you graduate and begin looking for that entry-level job. Student programs can also include the basics like help paying for food, clothing and school supplies. Contact student services at the three colleges you are applying to so you will know what programs are available. A good student services program is one of the things to consider when you are deciding on a college.

Map Out Your Classes for Each Year

Map out the classes you will have to take each year to be able to graduate on time. Then lean when and how you register for these classes. If you are late registering, the classes you want may filled, which can put you off your graduation schedule.

Get a required course list for your degree and for your major and minor if you have one. Many schools have a required course list online on their website and student portal. Printed versions can be gotten from the Registrar’s office. Once you know the required classes, first make a list of the general education requirements that you have in addition to your major. These are usually classes such as English, Science and Math and sometimes a language. Make a list of those categories and the number of courses that you are required to take under each category. Then repeat this list for your major, and minor if you have one. It is not unusual that most of the courses you take your first two years are required courses and outside your major.

No matter what classes you need to take, make sure you know where and how to register and be sure to register early. The classes taught by the best professors and at the most convenient times always fill up fast. If you are one of the last people to register for a required class you could end up an instructor you don’t want or with a time that conflicts with another class or is not convenient. Make sure you know how and when you can sign up for the classes you want

Know the Requirements for an Entry Level Job

Decide on three companies you would like to work for after you graduate and then contact their human resources department to learn what education and experience you must have for an entry-level job. I know this sounds inconsistent. But companies want experience when they hire people for entry-level jobs but not necessarily work experience. They will be looking to see that you have had some life experiences in college that demonstrates what are called soft skills. Here are some of these soft skills that human resource managers look for:

  • Leadership – This is probably the most valued skill of all because a good leader can inspire, motivate and raise the bar for everyone around him or her. Having a good leader at any level in the organization can create a lot of value. The best way for students to develop this skill is to search for leadership opportunities beginning in high school and then in college. This could mean becoming involved in student government or leading an extracurricular activity including professional organizations that have student branches on campus that related to your major where you will also meet with people who have graduated with your major and who can be good references.  Carol McNearn, a CPA, and a Lawyer, is a YPNG mentor article who goes into detail in her article about the strategy she developed to become involves in these kinds of organizations and other ways she began networking in high school and later college. This deliberate effort helped her get a good job after graduation and should be an important part of your own career planning.
  • Strong Communication Skills – Employers are looking for people who speak well, write well and understand the importance of listening. This might sound simple, but often people struggle to communicate effectively, and this can slow down business in a world where speed is valued. There are many high school and college organizations where you can demonstrate good communication skills like speech, debate and theater.
  •  Teamwork – Working well with others is critical in most work environments. Rarely is there a job, project, or task that doesn’t have a better result when the minds of multiple people come together rather than going at it alone. Students can develop the skills necessary to effectively work with others in many ways, including participating in athletics and extracurricular activities. You can also opt to complete team-based projects such as service activities during high school and college.

Participating in these activities helps show potential employers that you are someone who will be a motivated, enthusiastic, committed, goal-oriented and will come to work on time each day prepared to do your job.

Also, ask the person you are talking to in human resources about any internship programs or financial aid the company might have for college students pursuing majors the company needs. There are several architectural and engineering firms in Oklahoma that offer scholarships to promising students and internships once you have completed one or two years of your college coursework.

It is important to know that you are in control of your life. Make good choices that will move you towards your career and life goals.










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